The roots of infertility regard to men in 40% of all cases.

Male infertility: reasons and factors that affect it.

Infertility is a prominent issue, involving young couples at a rate of 10 to 15%.  According to recent studies, infertility roots, regard to women in 40 or 50% of the cases, to men in 40% , and there is also a percentage of 20%, when there is an issue in both spouses.



IMMUNOLOGICAL ISSUES (4%) immunological reactions in the sperm may cause temporary infertility. Anti-spermic antibodies may affect the sperm so that it won’t be able to fertilize.

Hormonal disorders (10%) Hormonal thyroid issues, low levels of testosterone, high FSH hormone as well as prolactin, may affect the sperm.

Inflammations and infections (9%) Parotitis, if caught after childhood, along with certain venereal  diseases such as vlenorrhea and chlamydia, also affect the quality of the sperm. Simultaneously, prostate infections make the sperm weak, concerning the number of sperm cells and their mobility.

Varicocele(15%) When there is a swelling of a vein inside the testicles, preventing appropriate blood supply, causing temperature rise. In general, an oversized and painful varicocele may inflict testicle damage if not treated. Possible treatment includes surgical operation or installation of a special balloon, called stent, in order to control blood flow.

Sexual dysfunctions (6%) There are several medical issues contributing to infertility causes, such as diabetes and depression medications. Over 20% of men have minimum sex drive, difficulty in maintaining their erection, premature ejaculation and, in some rare cases, palindrome ejaculation.

Palindrome ejaculation may be caused by certain medication , surgical operations, or nerve damage. In this case, the sperm is misdirected and ejaculation takes place inside the urinary cyst. It is possible to collect the sperm from the urine, in order to use it in assisted reproduction.

Former cancer treatments. Chemotherapy and radiation may cause infertility. Therefore it is advisable, before starting such therapies, to proceed to sperm freezing first.

Genetic disorders. A very small percentage in infertile men have Kleinefelter syndrome. In this case, men have two X chromosomes and one Y,  in contrast with the norm, which is one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

Testicle injury. Any kind of serious testicle injury may affect sperm production.


Stop smoking. Smoking affects sperm quantity and mobility, and also causes serious damage in male fertility. It has been proved that smokers have on average 13 to 17% less sperm than non-smokers, due to the chemical substances included in cigarettes, but fortunately, if someone stops smoking timely, this damage may be reversible.

Avoid excessive caffeine intake. 1-2 cups of coffee daily are fine, as, according to studies, consuming coffee, mostly filter coffee, makes the sperm faster and more effective. On the other hand, many studies have shown that excessive caffeine quantity in the human system, affects sperm quality negatively.

Balanced nutrition. Nutrition plays an important and significant part, and if it is appropriate and balanced, it helps and assists fertility, whereas if it’s deficient, imbalanced or inadequate, it causes trouble in man’s fertility. It has also been proved that obese man have lower levels of testosterone, which , as a result, affects negatively the sperm.  Therefore, achieving and preserving the ideal weight is necessary and of utmost importance for a man’s fertility. It is advisable to avoid fatty foods and over- consumption of red meat and fried food, as well as processed food,as it contains preservatives and chemicals which affect fertility negatively. Also, variety in nutritional choices and increasing the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, affects fertility positively.

All in all, ingredients directly connected to fertility, are omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which can be found in fat fish and dry nuts, folic acid traced in leafy vegetables, vitamins b, c, d, e, selenium, which can be found in fish and whole grain cereal, chromium (cheese, black pepper), calcium and zinc in oyster shells and meat.

Staying in places with high temperature must be avoided, such as sauna and hot baths that raise testicle temperature,and comfortable clothes must be prefered to tight underwear and trousers. We know that spermatogenesis is significantly affected by temperature rising in the scrotum area. In order for testicles to produce excellent quality sperm, they have to be inside the scrotum, which has lower temperature than the rest of the body. Excessive heat for very long periods, such as working in factories, forges, machinery rooms, may also cause infertility. Environmental factors such as contact with chemicals, like lead or arsenic, as well as paints, varnishes and toxins, also affect the sperm. Men, whose profession demands contact with toxic substances, have limited fertility,since these substances distort harmonic balance and deteriorate sperm production.

Having frequent sexual intercourse. Ranging from 1 to 3 days, as abstinence affects sperm mobility, whereas too frequent sexual contacts (twice or three times a day) may lead to dramatic deterioration of sperm quantity.

Avoid chronic medicine intake, antibiotics mostly, avoid using medicines that have to do with hormones like anabolics, because they may affect the production of sperm, and avoid using drug substances.

Avoid alcohol consumption. As Shakespeare said: “alcohol increases desire, but dicreases performance”. Alcohol addicts, not only have erectional dysfunctions, but are also presented with high levels of estrogens, which damage the sperm.

Training. 20 to 30 minutes, three times a week. However, intense exercise, such as excessive biking, should be avoided, as there is a risk of sperm quality getting altered.

Laptops, pinned on the legs, may affect a man’s fertility. Daily and prolonged use of mobile phones, also causes spermagenetic disruptions.

Other factors that affect male fertility are : obesity connected to heat, (as excessive fat warms up the testicles,) stress, and sedentary life! Age also plays a significant part. More and more men are trying to have children after their 40’s lately, and as a result, they are having a hard time achieving this.